Wondering Why?

Why do Atoms form bonds?

Why do Atoms form bonds?

Every object is made up of atoms of its kind. In the periodic table, we can find many elements with each one having specific characteristic atoms . The number provided for the element in the periodic table is called the atomic number, which is equal to the proton number of the atom. Atom has a nucleus surrounded by intra atomic space. The nucleus consists of positively charged protons and neutrons. Negatively charged electrons occupy the space surrounding the nucleus, rotating around the nucleus in specific orbits. The density of finding the electrons in the orbit is called orbital.

The noble gases like Neon, Argon and Helium have the arrangement of electrons in their orbits in a regular manner without any deficiency. They do not need any more electrons to fill up the outer orbit in order to balance the charge between protons and electrons. As a result,  they are considered to be stable. Stable atoms do not tend to form a bond with other atoms. The atoms of elements other than noble gases can form an ion, which is an atom or group of atoms having either positive or negative overall charge. When the atom loses electrons due to some attractive force ,the positive charge of the protons dominate the atom. If the atom gains electrons, it turns into a negative ion rich in electrons.

If these ions exist they tend to become stable and neutralize the charge on them. So they try to pull oppositely charged ions towards it. This attractive force that exists between the two atoms forms a bond. Bonds are classifies as two types, which are ionic and covalent. In ionic bonding, one atom transfers the electrons to another atom and attains opposite charge to the recipient atom and develops an attractive force in between them. This attraction is not directional. Covalent bonding involves sharing of electrons between the atoms to exist together by the formation of covalent bond.

In both the ways, the vacancy for electrons in an atom in its outer orbit is satisfied by the electron from the outer orbit of another atom to attain stability. This is the reason why bonds are formed.

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