Why do Magnets attract?
Magnets are the only objects that can have control on other objects without having contact with them. If a magnet is kept closer to another object, it will either repel or attract the other. This happens as per the rules of magnetism. To know whether the object is a magnet or not, it is necessary to bring it closer to the iron filings. If the iron is controlled by either attracting it or repelling it, then the object in question is a magnet. Most of the minerals in nature and the rocks also act as natural magnets. Magnets are also created artificially.
The effect of magnetism is shown by the magnet in the form of a strong invisible field that surrounds it. The magnetism is shown at the atomic level. The magnetic field is created by the movement of electrons. The over activity of these electrons make the magnet to attract or repel. Each magnet consists of North Pole and South Pole. The factor that makes the magnet to exhibit attraction or repulsion is the Pole. Magnets attract when the North Pole is faced towards the South Pole. In other words unlike poles attract each other while like poles repel each other.
Magnet can also be generated from electric current. Magnetic field is created around the electric wire in which current is passing. A straight wire may not have enough magnetic fields generated from it. So, the electric wire is coiled to create an intense magnetic field. This is called electromagnet. The electric motors use this concept of magnetic field generated from the electric current. When this magnetic field is kept closer to another permanent magnet then the electric wire attains polarity. This makes it to either get attracted or repelled by the permanent magnet kept nearer to it. This allows the electric shaft to rotate and run the motor. Magnets tend to attract elements that have unpaired electrons which can spin in the same direction. This will create an orbital magnetic moment which is a vector that has magnitude and direction. The strength of the magnetic field is determined by the magnetic moment. The total magnetic moment is the result of individual moments of the atoms in the magnet.