Why Does Food Spoil?
Food quality gets diminished gradually due to the natural fermentation process. Of course, there are some steps that we can carry out in order to enhance the shelf life of the food. Some of the preservation mechanism happens during the manufacturing itself and some part is followed naturally. The knowledge of processes that occur with the food when it is kept in the shelf will allow us to extend the shelf life of the food. The methods for preservation and storage should be developed in order to prevent the decomposition of food and improve the safety and taste of the food.
If the food that we had taken still exists inside its source, then its destruction will not start immediately. If the food is harvested or processed in the slaughter house, then the process of decaying starts from then onwards. The spoiling is started by the fungi, bacteria, and enzymes. Some of the changes that occur in the vegetarian food might be desirable to us like ripening of fruits, aging of cheese and so on. Wine and beer are prepared from the sugars transformed into alcohol. Cheese is made by the souring of milk.
The environment conditions also aid the microbes to act on the food and spoil it. Improper temperature and uncontrolled moisture might enhance the growth of pathogens which spoil the food. Spoiled food is not only an indication of poor quality of the food but are also less safe to eat. Molds and yeasts can extend their tuft of strands into the foods that can cause allergies and other diseases when eaten. Some bacteria like Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus spoil meat, poultry and milk and cream respectively. These bacteria cause food spoilage. Enzymes in some of the microbes destroy the foods which can be deactivated on cooking.
The other reasons for food spoilage are piercing the fruit or vegetable, oxidation of food, food adulteration and food infection by the insects and microbes.