Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia

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Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia are some of the oldest civilizations known in the world. Despite the two maintaining their characteristics, the two countries, which are some of the technologies we use today, shared some similarities as discussed below.

  • What is Egypt?

Ancient Egypt was a region in northeastern Africa, which was highly concentrated along the Nile River in the country, which is now known as Egypt. It is one of the most recognized civilizations regions around the world.

  • What is Mesopotamia?

Mesopotamia is a historical region that is attributed to its early civilizations and technological development that are still in use in the modern era. Mesopotamia is said to be between river Tigris and Euphrates which currently the border area between Iraq, Turkey, and Syria.

Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia

Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia

  1. Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia in terms “Agriculture”

Both Mesopotamia and Egypt depended on farming for the source of food and livelihood while at the same time abandoning hunting and gathering as their primary sources of food. Both countries were situated between river valleys where they enjoyed sufficient water supply and fertile soils. Mesopotamia depended on both river Euphrates and Tigris, which flooded every year leaving fertile lands for farming. Ancient Egypt depended on Nile River, which flooded every summer bringing in fertile soils from Sudan and the eastern Africa region hence supporting agriculture.

  1. Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia in terms “Religion”

Another similarity between ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia is that they believed in polytheistic nature of gods. This means that they believed in many gods and goddesses, which were based on the character each god or goddesses represented a specific natural event. Some of the gods and goddesses present in both Egypt and Mesopotamia include the god of the sky, the god of earth, the god of fresh water, and the god of the sun. It is also meriting noting that there were other gods and goddesses, which represented human emotions and the underworld among others. One of the existing differences between the gods of Egypt and Mesopotamia is that gods of Egypt were seen to be good because they helped in predicting floods while the gods of Mesopotamia were unpredictable because floods could happen irregularly causing deaths.

  1. Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia in terms “Social Hierarchy”

Both ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia had a similar method of organizing the society in the form of hierarchy and social structures. The following are some of the groups in both countries, which were arranged from bottom to top with those upper in the social fabric yielding much power while those lower in the social structure were subordinates and subjects of the ruling class. The labor class which constituted the slaves, the lower class which was made up by farmers, musician, and brewers, the middle class which comprised of scribes, wealthier merchants, the upper class (clergy and nobles), and the ruling class.

  1. Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia in terms “Civilization and Technological Innovation”

Many people attribute both ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia as the main regions where ancient civilizations took part. The two countries started people settlement where people abandoned nomadic lifestyles and stored in specific regions which were close to water sources and fertile soils for food production through agriculture. Additionally, ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia are attributed to be the source of writing, the wheel, the calendar, and beer brewing. The two regions later innovated different methods of storing their agricultural products among other ways of enhancing their food production.

  1. Similarities Between Egypt and Mesopotamia in terms “Trade”

Another common phenomenon between ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia is that the two regions had great trading structures. Due to their increased agricultural products, the two countries traded with their neighbors where they could offer their products for tools used as weapons also for farming. The only difference between the two regions is that trading in Mesopotamia was vibrant due to technological improvements. Moreover, trade in Mesopotamia was so advanced that the merchant class developed commercial laws to govern their trading activities.


  • Notwithstanding some initial inspiration, Egyptian culture separated itself from Mesopotamia in some ways beyond politics and monument building.
  • Egyptian science concentrated on mathematics and astronomy, but its accomplishments were far less advanced than those of Mesopotamia.

Author: Jecinta Morgan

Jecinta is an experienced writer who has been writing for more than three years and she has a degree in Finance and Accounting.

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