Hinduism and Buddhism, both of the religion were originated in the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism is one of the oldest religions of the world which is a very complex religion. Buddhism came into existence after a long period than Hinduism, that is in & around 6th and 4th centuries BCE. According to some historical researchers Buddhism evolved and became popular because of the complexity of the Hinduism.
Hinduism is a very vast, complex and considered to be one of the oldest religions of the world. The origin of Hinduism, according to historians dates back to 5000 years or more than that. The word “Hindu” comes from the name of a river called Indus which was called as “Sindhu” in ancient time. When Persians migrated to India they called the river as “Hindu” and the people living around the river as “Hindus” and the land as “Hindustan”.
The early history of Hinduism is difficult to date exactly. As per historians the origin of Hinduism trace back to the Iron Age India. Hinduism is not founded by any single founder. Hinduism is regarded as a combination of different Indian cultures, local or regional religious practices, beliefs and traditions that prevail during different period in Indian subcontinent.
The evolution of Hinduism can be divided into 3 different periods that is the Ancient period which is from 3000 BCE to 1000 AD, the medieval period which is from 1000-1800 AD, and the modern period which is from 1800 AD to present.
Many practitioners called Hinduism as Sanatana Dharma which is the eternal law and refers to the way of living to achieve moksha. The Vedas are the Hindu scriptures which originate in the ancient Indian subcontinent. There are four Vedas such as the Rig-Veda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Atharvaveda which contains the mantras, rituals, sacrifice, way of meditation and spiritual knowledge written in Sanskrit language. The Upanishads are the base of Hindu logical thought, and have extremely influenced various traditions.
The Veda refers to spiritual entities called Devas or Devata or God. The devas are an essential part of Hindu culture. Hindu belief and worship numerous gods and goddesses. But Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu are regarded as the highest gods of Hinduism. The sacred scriptures of Hinduism also include the Upanishad and Bhagvad Gita.
Hinduism believes that the aim of human life is Dharma, Artha, Kama and at last Moksha. According to Hinduism there are four stages of life such as Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanaprastha and Sannyasa. Hinduism also believes that soul is immortal and it moves from one body to another after death. To achieve moksha one need to do good karma and follow the dharma.
Buddhism is an Indian religion. The origin of Buddhism dates back to Ancient India somewhere between 6th and 4th centuries B.C.E. Buddhism is the fourth-largest religion of the world. Buddhism attained importance as it was supported by royal courts in the Indian subcontinent. After the Gupta Era it started decline and nearly vanished from India in 11th century CE, excluding in some parts of India. Outside of India it continued to exist and is one of the major religions in many Asian countries. Buddhism involves a variety of traditions, spiritual practices, and beliefs which are mostly based on the wisdoms of Gautama Buddha.
Siddhartha Gautama is the founder of Buddhism who was born in Lumbini Garden of Kapilavastu to a royal family. The date of his birth is not certain. Most of the historians relate his lifetime between 563 BCE to 483 BCE.
Buddha was born to a royal Hindu family. His father was king Suddhodana and mother queen Maya Devi. He was raised by his Gautami who was his mother’s sister. Gautama Married to Yashodhara and they had a son name Rahul. He was leading a happy life but once when he saw four strange experiences of human life his thinking changed and he decided to find a way to eliminate the suffering of mankind. The next morning he left his kingdom, and for the next six years he spent studying and meditating under different religious teacher and observes fasting. When a young girl named sujata offered him a rice bowl he realized that physical severity was not the way to attain inner liberation and he accepted her offering.
Buddha sat under a Bodhee Tree and meditates. After 49 days of meditation, Buddha got enlightenment and finally found the answer to the suffering. Gautama then called as the “Enlighten Budhdha”. Gautama Buddha also known as the Shakyamuni Buddha.
The most important principles he taught comprised the Four Noble Truths and also the Eight-Fold Path. The four noble truths are
- Life is Dukkha or Suffering.
- Suffering is the result of craving.
- Suffering has an end.
- The way of ending the suffering.
The Noble eight fold paths are the steps to be followed in everyday life to attain Nirvana. They are
- Right Understanding
- Right Resolve
- Right Speech
- Right Action
- Right Livelihood
- Right Effort
- Right Mindfulness and
- Right Concentration.
According to Gautama Buddha, if someone follows these combined paths in his/ her everyday life, he/she will be able to attain Nirvana which is the goal of human life as per Buddhism. Nirvana is a stage of life in which there will not be any suffering, no desire, no expectation and the person is released from cycle of rebirth.
Similarities between Hinduism and Buddhism
Hinduism and Buddhism are among the most ancient religions of the world. Both of the religions are popular in today’s world. More than 80% of India’s total population follows Hinduism. Buddhism is also followed by more than 376 million people around the world. Buddhism and Hinduism have some religious similarities and belief which are as below.
|1. Hinduism originated in the Indian Subcontinent||1. Buddhism also originated in the Indian Subcontinent|
|2. Hinduism belief in the cycle of rebirth.||2. Buddhism also belief in the cycle of rebirth.|
|3. Hinduism belief desire is the reason of suffering.||3. Buddhism also belief desire is the reason of suffering which is one of the four noble truths of Buddhism.|
|4. Hinduism believes that excessive connection to things and people is the reason of suffering and hence we should make our self free from all the desires.||4. Buddhism also believes that Suffering is the result of craving which is another noble truth of Buddhism.|
|5. Hinduism encourages people to practice good karma.||5. Buddhism also, encourages people to practice good karma.|
|6. In Hinduism special yoga and meditations are practiced to get spiritual power.||6. In Buddhism also, yoga and meditation are the way to achieve enlightment.|
|7. Hinduism believes that one has to detach from the materialistic world as a prerequisite to enter the spiritual world.||7. Buddhism believes that one has to detach from the materialistic world as a prerequisite to enter the spiritual world. To get enlighten Buddha left his kingdom also.|
|8. Hinduism emphasizes peace and kindness to all living beings.||8. Buddhism also emphasizes peace and kindness to all living beings.|
|9. Hinduism believes in hells and heavens.||9. Buddhism also believes in hells and heavens.|
|10.In Hinduism people go to temple and worship different gods and goddesses.||10.In Buddhism also Buddhist go to the temple and worship the shrine or statue of Gautama Buddha.|
|11.Hinduism believes in the process of rebirth based on conducts of the present life.||11.Buddhism also believes in the process of rebirth based on conducts of the present life.|
|12.Hinduism believes that one has to work on his own towards achieving salvation as attaining salvation is determined by the good works done by a person. There are 4 yogas to achieve salvation such as Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana and Raja Yoga.||12.Buddhism also believes that one has to work on his own towards achieving salvation as attaining salvation is determined by the good works done by a person.|
|13.Hinduism believes that there are many ways to attain enlightenment for example controlling over the 6 conscious senses and overcoming through the desire.||13.Buddhism also believes that there are many ways to attain enlightenment for example controlling over the 6 conscious senses and restraining self from the desire.|
|14.Hinduism believes that each thing on the planet will ultimately attain enlightenment and liberation.||14.Buddhism also believes that each thing on the planet will ultimately attain enlightenment and liberation by doing good Karma.|
|15.In Hinduism, the worshippers of the Goddess Kali and Shiva do the tantric practices.||15.In Buddhism, ‘Tantrayana’ or tantric practices are prevalent.|
|16.Hinduism believes that the whole universe is in the inner world of a human being.||16.Buddhism also believes that the whole universe is in the inner world of a human being.|
|17.Hinduism believes that liberation or free from re birth is the solution of all suffering||17.Buddhism also believes that liberation or free from re birth is the solution of all suffering|
Hinduism and Buddhism both the religions teach the human being to do good deeds and have sympathy for others which is the most beautiful principle of a religion. China is the largest follower of Buddhism. Hinduism is largely followed by Indians. Buddhism is one of the major religions in several Asian countries like Thailand, Myanmar, Bhutan, Srilanka, Cambodia, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and many more.