Why is RNA important to the cell?
RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid. DNA and RNA are genetic material which constitutes the basic genetic code that gets transferred from parents to offspring. RNA is one of the macromolecules which consist of components called as nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. Each nucleotide is comprised of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and phosphate group. DNA and RNA collectively participate in the synthesis of proteins in various steps. The nitrogen bases present in RNA are adenine, uracil, cytosine and guanine.
The genetic information that is available in DNA gets transcribed into a long hetero nuclear RNA (hnRNA). The hn RNA is direct transcription of both introns and exons of DNA. Since Introns are only structural parts of the DNA and not functional parts, only exons will get assembled later in the form of mRNA or messenger RNA. The mRNA that is formed as the end result of transcription is ready to get coded into proteins by providing the framework for the amino acids to form a long chain. Amino acids are carried on to the mRNA and elongated to form a protein with the help of ribosomes. Ribosomes travel across the mRNA and provide the site for the amino acids to connect with the previously created chain.
The mRNA is the coding sequence of various nucleotides which gets translated further into a protein sequence. Here, the codon is referred to as a combination of three nucleotides. Three nucleotides constitute a code for matching with each of the amino acids. The tRNA is called as transfer RNA which aids in carrying of amino acids from their pool to the site of protein synthesis. So, all the three types of RNAs are involved in synthesis of proteins. Proteins are very much essential for the survival of the cell. Hence, RNA is important to the cell.